Engage INDUSTRIAL ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING AND AUTOMATION Characterization of power system loads in rural Uganda

Despite the fact that the majority of Uganda's population lives in the rural areas only 1\% of them have access to electricity. To be able to extend the grid to new areas, models of the consumption of electricity are needed. The aim of this thesis is to provide such models based on data collected in Uganda. The modeling effort is based on a field study carried out in Uganda where survey based interviews and measurements were made. The measurements cover four different transformers that provide the customers of Najjeera village with power. The time span of the measurements varies between 24h and 7 days. The interviews with 67 of the 93 customers, have been used to determine the distribution of the load between the customers. These show that electrification of rural areas is not, at this time, a solution to the increasing deforestation that is partly caused by the usage of firewood. Electricity does not substitute firewood since it is mainly used for lighting and entertainment.

From the collected data energy consumption on a daily basis has been derived. A closer look has been made on the different parts of the day: night (0-06), morning (06-09), daytime (09-19) and evening (19-24). During the evening hours the major consumption of electricity occurs, while during the daytime hours the usage of electricity stays at very low levels. The sets of data have been grouped depending on the financial situation of the

customers since economical factors are dominating in determining the amount of electricity consumed. Domestic and non domestic loads have been identified. The domestic load has been divided into four different groups: ``poor'', ``middle'', ``middle-rich'', and ``rich''. The daily mean power value has been calculated for each group. The results of the categorization have also been used to estimate the load arising from a poultry farm and a boarding school in the field study area.

When dimensioning power systems peak loads are important and in this case they occur in the morning and evening hours. For three different groups of these peaks a Generalized Pareto Distribution has been fitted. The estimated parameters of the distribution have also been tested on other groups of customers with similar economical background, with varying results.

Doing the thesis project in a developing country

Whereas most thesis projects involve only one university department, Frances Sprei's project is a cooperation between three departments. Two are in Lund-Department of Industrial Electrical Engineering and Automation (IEA) and the Centre for Mathematical Sciences-and one is in Uganda-Department of Electrical Engineering at Makerere University in Kampala. Even more parties have been involved. The project was initiated by the World Bank which runs projects on rural electrification in Africa. Close relations between those activities and SIDA made it natural to make the thesis work into a Minor Field Study with associated MFS scholarship as funding.

Annamaria Sandgren was the first student going to Uganda to do her MSc project initiated by the World Bank and having a supervisor at IEA. Frances Sprei is now the second. Judging from the reactions to their work, more students at LTH would like to do the same thing. At LTH, doing a part of the studies in developing countries is a natural option for students in architecture and civil engineering. The lack of contacts makes this much more difficult for other students. Hopefully, the connection between Makerere university and Lund university that now has been established will change this situation.

The informal seminar gives a slide-show and opts for discussions!

Dept Industrial Electrical Eng. and Automation
Lund University
Box 118, SE-221 00 LUND
phone: +46 46 222 92 90
fax: +46 46 14 21 14
email: iea@iea.lth.se
www: www.iea.lth.se