Past seminars at IEA in 2019
Past seminars in
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Onsdag 12/6 kl 15:15, M:IEA, Presentation av examensarbete.
" Virtual Commissioning "
Eric Chronvall, Christian Svensson
In practice, Virtual Commissioning is a technical method to move a great portion of the commissioning tasks to an earlier state in the project. To make this possible a simulation model of a system is created within a simulation program. The behavior of the system is then programmed through an external PLC program. This allows for software testing simultaneously with the software development environment to verify the function of the PLC program.
This thesis investigated the possibility of using a simulation program, Visual Components on four transportation robots. These robots were supposed to be able to be moved separately or all together at once. Furthermore the programming environment of TwinCAT was used. The vision was to connect Visual Components and TwinCAT through a communication protocol - Beckhoff ADS. Through ADS communication, data could sent back and forth between the two programs. To structure the code, the OMAC PackML construction was decided to be implemented. In addition, a HMI (a display with buttons to be pressed by a machine operator) was constructed. By the HMI all necessary functions such as point-to-point movement, jogging and stopping were implemented. The final result would be a software program based upon PackML in TwinCAT, a HMI, and a Visualized model in Visual Components.
Arbetet utfört vid Beckhoff AB, Malmö och AP&T, Ulricehamn
Handledare: Fredrik Malmgren, Daniel Jovanovski (Beckhoff) och Gunnar Lindstedt (IEA)
Examinator: Ulf Jeppsson (IEA)
Onsdag 12/6 kl 10:30, M:IEA, Presentation av examensarbete.
" Analytical approach to understanding the tooth height variations of the stator in an axial flux machine and its impact on the airgap "
Höganäs AB is developing an axial flux machine, where an even airgap between the stator and rotor is a vital parameter of designing an well-functioning machine. It is believed that the stator is the component that introduces the biggest variations to the airgap, and that is why the stator is the object for investigation for this thesis.
As a result of the project is it concluded that the measuring fixture for stator components in use a Höganäs today affected the green components, and a new reliable design were introduced.
The result of optimizing the press settings did not change the flatness of the stator coreback, but the evenness of the teeth were improved.
The result is pointing in the direction of that the heat treatment method used today, is the best of the different variations that were included in this report.
It was concluded that if crimping is to be considered as an attachment method for the stator to the aluminum housing, needs it to be investigated further. Results showed how the stator deforms during the force, and that magnetic properties are affected.
The results regarding cogging were setback by to many introduced variations in the assembly, and it was not possible to in a confidant way draw any conclusions from the different stator groups. However, the data presents that two out of the twelve combinations shows differently and better result than the rest.
Arbetet utfört vid Höganäs AB
Handledare: Hans Johansson Dahlskog (Höganäs AB) och Gunnar Lindstedt (IEA)
Examinator: Johan Björnstedt (IEA)
Tisdag 11/6 kl 10:30, M:IEA, Presentation av examensarbete.
" Earthing lug design for Alfa Laval Gasketed Plate Heat Exchanger "
In applications involving the ?ow of low conductivity liquids, great care must be taken to avoid static electricity build-up which could potentially lead to catastrophic dis-charges. As the Gasketed Plate Heat Exchanger line-up o?ered by Alfa Laval is used in such scenarios, the heat exchanger has to be grounded using an earthing lug to eliminate the risk of discharge. As the only requirement for such an earthing lug is that it is securely attached to the GPHE with a resistance low enough to ensure e?ective dissipation, a plethora of ways to do this is possible. But without proper understanding of how static electricity works and how it ?ts in with the GPHE, there is a signi?cant risk that solutions chosen fail to provide a proper path to ground. For this reason, a comprehensive work on static electricity was produced and then used as a source when examining the GPHE.
The source of the charge accumulation in the GPHE was determined to be the heat transferring plates, wedged between the frame and pressure plate. The cause is theorised to be a case of ?ow electri?cation which is a charge accumulating mechanism be-tween a solid and a liquid.
Five designs are presently available to customers to ground the GPHE but all require further testing and veri?cation to determine if they perform as expected. A circuit resistance to earth of 10 ? or lower is usually used as an indicator of an adequate circuit and is therefore used as an evaluation parameter during testing. The results showed that the three frame plate mounted designs were ine?ective as the measured resistance was well above the chosen threshold and maximum allowed resistance of 1 M?.
After additional tests and experimentation, the epoxy paint used to coat the frame and pressure plate proved to be the reason for this as it was e?ectively isolating the two plates from the heat plates where the charge accumulation is believed to occur. Based on this and a selection matrix weighing factors of interest from a production and cost perspective, the two designs mounted on the support column were determined to be preferred and therefore recommended with the fastener design being the preferred one. Guidelines of how to make the three ine?ective designs was also provided.
Arbetet utfört vid Alfa Laval AB, Lund
Handledare: Martin Andersson, Alfa Laval och Gunnar Lindstedt IEA
Examinator: Johan Björnstedt IEA
Måndag 3/6 kl 10:30, M:IEA, Presentation av examensarbete.
" Automatiserad impedansanpassning av ett serieresonant induktionsvärmningssystem "
Inom industrin används många typer av värmekällor. Det kan vara öppna lågor, IR strålning,
resistiv uppvärmning eller induktionsvärming. Induktionsvärmningen är en värmingstyp med
hög energidensitet, låg investeringskostnad, snabb uppstartstid och hög -exibilitet. Ett serieresonant
induktionsvärmningssystem består i sin enklaste form utav en växelspänningskälla,
en spole, en kondensator och objektet som ska värmas. Även en transformator kan kopplas in
för att kunna ta ut maximal eekt från växelspänningskällan. Olika induktorer kräver olika
kapacitanser och transformatorer. I dagsläget monteras dessa komponenter manuellt för varje
induktor och applikation men en automatiserad lösning hade varit att föredra för att ytterligare
kunna eektivisera tillverkningsprocesser genom att alltid uppnå maximal värmningseekt.
Detta arbetets huvudsyfte är att konstruera en prototyp av en automatisk impedansanpassare
som kan användas istället för att manuellt byta komponenter. Prototypen ska bestå av ett fåtal
transformatorer och kondensatorbanker vars konguration kan ställas med hjälp av reläer.
Impedansanpassaren ska ta emot kommandon från en frekvensomriktare eller en extern dator
och välja konguration utifrån dessa.
Arbetet har utmynnat i en framtagen konstruktion och en förenklad prototyp. Den framtagna
konstruktionen består av tre kanaler och den byggda prototypen av en kanal. Den byggda
prototypen har utvärderats utifrån en funktionsbeskrivning som togs fram i början av arbetet
innehållandes de önskade funktionerna och krav som ställs på impedansanpassaren. En sak
som kom fram under utvärderingen är att det lätt uppstår för höga spänningar i kretsen. För att
undvika detta bör frekvensomriktaren begränsa den möjliga strömmen så att för höga spänningar
och i värsta fall överslag undviks. Även skärmning av reläerna undersöktes för att se
hur det påverkar uppvärmningen av dem. För de reläer som använts påverkar inte skärmningen
tillräckligt mycket för att denitivt konstatera att det hjälper. Skärmning bör undersökas
vidare ifall andra reläer, kanske till och med egendesignade, används. Projektet har i övrigt i
stort sett löpt på som planerat och majoriteten av de mål som satts upp har uppnåtts.
Arbetet utfört vid Corebon AB, Malmö
Handledare: Rasmus Kjellstrand, Corebon och Gunnar Lindstedt IEA
Examinator: Johan Björnstedt IEA
Monday 27 May 2019, 13:15, M:IEA (seminar room), Master Thesis presentation:
" Agile PKM, Agile Parallel Kinematic Manipulator "
Felix Lundblad, Hampus Farmängen
The purpose of this thesis was to contribute to the creation of a prototype of a new type
of robot called Agile Parallel Kinematic Manipulator or AgilePKM for short. Designing,
building and controlling a new type of robot is a task which goes beyond the scope of
any master thesis, but there are subtasks within the process which are more suitable to
handle in the limited amount of time oered. There are three subtasks that are addressed
in this thesis, they are described below.
The AgilePKM consists of many joints and rods where one of the most crucial is
the elbow joint. The rst subtask was to construct this joint to eciently meet the
requirements and advantages of the new robot structure. The elbow joint is a very exposed
joint as it exclusively actuates vertical movements, carrying not only the payload but the
forearm structure as well. This was to be done while facilitating sucient movement
for the extensive working space and minimizing weight and cost for the proof-of-concept
prototype. To ensure that these targets were fullled an adapted need identication
process was carried out followed by benchmarking and concept generation. From this the
most promising concept was chosen and developed upon to reach an optimal design.
The second subtask was to select the correct servo motors. This task involved making
a lot of assumptions and asking for specications which was far from nal due to the lack
of a mechanical construction. This was the reason to present a general recipe on how
to select a servo motor instead of only presenting the nal selection for the prototype.
The specications as well as the motor and driver are subject to change when building a
second prototype and the thesis will form a good base of knowledge for anyone taking on
The third task was to implement kinematics for the robot and integrate in an automation
platform. The selected platform was TwinCAT3 by Beckho using the integrated
CNC kernel provided by ISG Stuttgart. The kinematics was implemented in Python for
easy debugging and then manually translated to C++ for performance after which it was
imported to TwinCAT via a C++ module. The ISG kernel takes care of the trajectory
planning. After several hours with the tool one notices the restrictions of the tools, such
as the inability to dynamically limit the acceleration of each axis.
The report forms a knowledge base in necessary considerations in the generic design
of robots. The ndings
The report forms a good base in some of the knowledge needed in the design many
types of robots. In the case of the AgilePKM the selections and implementations made
in this thesis will be directly built upon and a time plan to launch the robot midsummer
2021 is in place.
Gunnar Lindstedt (IEA)
Hans Walter (Industriell Produktion)
Anders Robertsson (Reglerteknik)
Magnus Olsson (Cognibotics)
Adam Nilsson (Cognibotics)
Johan Björnstedt (IEA)
Carin Andersson (Industriell Produktion)
Monday May 20, at 10:15, hall M:E (Mechanical Engineering building, Ole Römers väg 1, Lund)
Licentiate Thesis Seminar:
" Complexity in Industrial Automation Systems "
As automation systems grows in number and scope, in particular as a result of systems being connected to and interacting with each other, the number of situations where various systems may perform in ways that were not intended increases. This situation is considered being mainly the result of increased complexity.
This thesis studies the concept of complexity from a technical perspective and aims at classifying the types of complexity present in industry today. It also tries to propose methods for handling the design of automation systems with inherent complexity.
The method chosen is to present a hypothesis and try to verify it by applying the principles to a number of manufacturing processes that has been identified by the author from personal experience of the processes.
Finally, the methods are exemplified by some simple mathematical examples of selected control units.
Assoc. Prof. Ulf Jeppsson (Lund University, Lund, Sweden)
Assoc. Prof. Gunnar Lindstedt (Lund University, Lund, Sweden)
Prof. Erik Dahlquist (Mälardalens Högskola, Västerås, Sweden)
Wednesday May 15th, 10:30 in M:IEA
" Embedded HVDC links under contingency operation "
Guest researcher Stefan Polster, Institute of Electric Power Systems TU Graz
Embedded HVDC links can be used to stabilize the AC system and avoid cascading events in case of line tripping in the AC system by adjusting power control set points. In this seminar an approach only using sensitivities of node voltage angles and PMU data of selected nodes to obtain new active power set points and possible obstacles for this approach are presented.
Friday May 10th, at 10:15, hall E:A (Electrical Engineering building, Lund)
Ph.D Defense and Presentation:
" Testing and Modelling of Electrical Traction Machines "
This thesis presents methods to derive and model the performance characteristics of interior permanent magnet machines - a machine type which is commonly used for propulsion of electrical vehicles. The thesis divides the performance characteristics into three subcategories: The electromagnetic properties, the loss profile and the thermal behaviour of the machines. One separate characterisation method is presented for each subcategory. However, all three methods have in common that they use data solely from mechanical or thermal transient operation. The methods aim to derive the characteristics with as little and as cheap equipment as possible, and to minimise the duration of the tests.
The procedure that derives the electromagnetic properties uses measurements from when the test objects accelerate and brake. The method obtains the relationship between the current and the linked magnetic flux in the stator windings with relatively small means, and it does not demand a brake machine or a power analyser. Furthermore, due to the low time duration of the tests, the method is well suited to derive the temperature dependence of the current/flux relationships. The loss profile of the machine is derived with a similar method as the magnetic model, but requires lower mechanical dynamics. Therefore, the method generally requires an increase of the moment of inertia of the rotating parts of the machines. This is typically achieved by mounting flywheels on the shafts of the test objects. The method yields results that are well suited to use as identification data for loss models of the machines. The thermal characteristics of the test objects are obtained from temperature measurements during transient thermal conditions. The measured data are used to derive an equivalent circuit that describes the thermal behaviour of the test objects well.
Supervisors: Prof. Mats Alaküla, Assoc. Prof. Avo Reinap
Opponent: Assoc. Prof. Pia Lindh
Tuesday 9 April 2019, 10:30, M:IEA (seminar room), Master Thesis presentation:
" Battery energy storage design and operation in an HVDC-system with WPP clusters "
The electricity sector is in the beginning of a large shift from centralized dispatchable
production to distributed variable production. With this necessary change, new
challenges arise. One crucial challenge is related to upholding the system balance
in the power grid. In this master thesis, a Battery Energy Storage System (BESS)
has been implemented in a HVDC-system with large amounts of Wind Power Plant
clusters, for performing the primary control, to see if this could contribute to
the development of renewables. The purpose of the work is to find out what control
strategy and method could be used to balance the DC-grid both short-term and long-term as
well as in what capacity range the BESS would have to be.
Supervisor: Jörgen Svensson, IEA
Examiner: Olof Samuelsson, IEA
Friday 15/3, 10:30, M:IEA
" Using Electric Cars for Balancing Variable Renewable Power on Gotland - Modelling the cumulative potential and examining economic incentives from the perspective of potential participants "
Renewable power is installed in ever-increasing amount, providing a good substitute to the greenhouse gas intensive power production that is currently often used. However, intermittency of such renewable power means an increased difficulty in matching supply and demand. The trend towards electrification of transport could be part of the solution here, if cars are charged when there is an abundance of power available. This technology is commonly referred to as smart charging and if combined with the ability of discharging power from electric vehicles to the grid, when power production is scarce, the term Vehicle-to-Grid (V2G) are often used.
In this thesis work, the potential for these technologies on the Swedish island of Gotland are addressed by creating a model connecting the transport and power system on the island and simulating the result in a fully electrified future. Gotland is chosen as the current limited transmission capability to and from the mainland and a high share of renewable power production have caused the local energy company to prohibit further installations of renewable energy production units. The case here shows what may come in a wider perspective. Additionally, concerns and driving forces from potential smart charging and V2G participators are examined in a literature study. The social dimensions of the technologies have been largely neglected in research and after all: there will be no implementation if participators cannot be motivated to be onboard.
Work performed at Power Circle (elkraftsbranschens intresseorganisation), Stockholm
Supervisors: Francisco J. Márquez-Fernández (IEA) and Daniel Kulin (Power Circle)
Examiner: Olof Samuelsson (IEA)
Måndag 11/3 kl 11:00 i M:D Presentation av examensarbete:
" Batterielektriska lastbilar i Malmö stad - en fallstudie inom citydistribution "
Trafikverkets preliminära siffror visar att utsläppen från
transportsektorn ökade med 0,5 % under 2018 när de för att nå
klimatmålen måste minska med 8 % per år om vi ska lyckas minska dem
med 70 % till 2030. Detta förklaras främst av att lastbilstrafiken
har ökat. För att nå detta mål krävs mer än biodrivmedel och
inte minst åkerinäringens egen _Färdplan för Fossilfri
Konkurrenskraft_ ser att elektrifiering kan spela en viktig roll
framöver. Detta arbete har försökt besvara frågan om den snabba
teknikutvecklingen inom batterielektriska lastbilar har gjort att
tekniken redan idag uppfyller vissa av de krav som åkerierna ställer
och därmed skulle kunna möjliggöra en introduktion inom vissa
områden. Detaljerad information om plats och hastighet har samlats in
med GPS-enheter på en tung och två lätta lastbilar på ett
åkeriföretag i Malmö. Utifrån dessa har en modell använts för
att uppskatta energiförbrukningen om en motsvarande batterielektrisk
lastbil hade kört samma rutter. Under presentationen kommer jag
besvara frågan hur väl rutterna kunde genomföras med
batterielektriska lastbilar som finns på marknaden redan idag.
Arbetet har utförts på Trivector, Lund
Handledare: Anna Clark (Trivector), Olof Samuelsson (IEA) och Lars Lindgren (IEA)
Examinator: Francisco Marquez (IEA)
Fredag 15/2 kl 10:30, M:IEA, Presentation av examensarbete:
" Conservation Voltage Reduction i Sverige - en simuleringsstudie "
Kewin Erichsen och Stefan Viklund
Effektbrist är ett högaktuellt ämne som diskuteras flitigt både i dagstidningar och inom energibranschen. Conservation Voltage Reduction, CVR, är en teknik som studerats och använts i USA under många år som en metod att råda bot på bland annat just effektbrist. CVR innebär att sänka spänningen i eldistributionsnät med syfte att minska effektuttag bland elanvändare, utan att tumma på de krav som finns på spänningskvalitet. Kan CVR vara något för Sverige också? Genom modellering och simuleringar av ett system baserat på ett svensk distributionsnät har det här examensarbetet försökt besvara den frågan!
Handledare: Olof Samuelsson, IEA
Examinator: Jörgen Svensson, IEA
Fredag 8/2 kl 14:00, M:IEA, Presentation av examensarbete:
" The Dissipating Energy Flow method for analysing generator contribution to power system damping - Evaluation and interpretation "
Arbetet har utförts vid IEA i samarbete med Vattenfall AB
Handledare: Thomas Smed, Vattenfall AB, och Olof Samuelsson, IEA
Examinator: Jörgen Svensson, IEA
Torsdag 31/1 kl 10:30, M:IEA, Presentation av examensarbete.
" Virtual Leash - device-less remote parking based on ultrasonic sensor detection "
In today's car industry more and more focus is put on autonomous driving and driving assistance. There are functions being developed that are supposed to assist the driver as well as functions that will be fully autonomous. Parking is an area where car companies are developing a lot of functions related to driver assistance and autonomous driving. One of the main reasons for this is that a lot of people think it is difficult to park their cars. Therefore, functions related to parking assistance have a high customer value. And in order to make a good function related to parking assistance and autonomous parking the function must be easy to use.
In this thesis work we have made a proof of concept for an automatic parking function where you can control the movement of the car in parking situations without any remote device. Instead of controlling the car with a phone or a key, we want the car to recognize you as the user and allow you to lead it in and out of parking spaces, by having it following your movement.
Arbetet utfört vid Volvo Cars, Göteborg
Handledare: Nenad Lazic, Volvo Cars och Gunnar Lindstedt IEA
Examinator: Johan Björnstedt IEA
Friday January 25th, at 10:15, hall M:B (Mechanical Engineering building, Ole Römers väg 1, Lund)
Ph.D Defense and Presentation:
" On the Design of Electric Traction Machines:
Design and Analysis of an Interior Permanent Magnet Synchronous Machine for Heavy Commercial Vehicles "
Recent years have proven the benefits of electrifying the road bound vehicle fleet. With new components entering, the general understanding as well as the components as such needs to be improved. Focus in the thesis is on the design of an electric machine based on specifications of requirements for a commercial heavy vehicle such as a truck or a bus. One strict requirement is that the machine has to fit in the vehicle without compromising the performance. Besides limitations on the size, this affects the power density and hence efficiency and cooling. Another characteristic of a traction machine is the difference between peak operation and average or continuous loading. Within the automotive sector, cost is also an important factor.
Prior to the design work, pre-studies are used to acquire good understanding of the intended applications. The result is a space claim of Ø220 mm times 400 mm and a peak power of 180 kW. By designing the machine with a top speed of almost five times that of a conventional heavy duty engine, the required power levels are reached with less torque. As torque is proportional to size, the power demand is reached with a smaller and hence also less expensive machine. The design work is done in a two dimensional finite element environment partly developed at the division at Lund University. Main focus is on the limited space claim and requested peak power. Cooling is done with oil directed to the active parts of the machine. Prototype testing proves the machine to be capable of propelling a heavy commercial vehicle. Some in depth studies are also done on torque ripple in the skewed machine and on mapping of the losses.
The thesis presents the thorough work on setting the requirements, designing, prototyping and testing an interior permanent magnet machine intended for propulsion of heavy commercial vehicles. Improvements implemented in the design tool is verified with measurements.
A deeper study on the torque output from the skewed machine shows a load dependant influence with larger impact in the field weakening region. It is also found larger than expected from the analytical expression in relevant text books. The losses are mapped with main focus on the speed dependant parts. A review of how manufacturing processes and machine controls affect the iron losses is presented. The iron loss model is adapted based on test results. Losses in the windings and in the rotor are included in the study as well.
Prof. Mats Alaküla (Lund University)
Senior Research Associate Rafal Wrobel (Newcastle University)
Past seminars at IEA in previous years